It is a problem that how to value a book printing company. The worth of a book printing company can be measured in terms of its physical assets, but more importantly by the intellectual property it controls. In financial and account viewpoint, valuations of book printing companies tend to be based on the revenues of the companies and the sector in which they operate. This is partly because the balance sheets of companies, which show their assets, can be difficult to interpret. Debts owing to the company may include advance payments to authors which will never be earned out, and the value of stock may be inﬂated by books in the warehouse that will never be sold. Hidden liabilities could include an overseas distributor having the right to return tens of thousands of books for credit. Companies with interests in legal, STM and electronic publishing are likely to be bought for a higher multiple of sales than consumer companies. Publishers create value through innovation, coming up with new ideas and variations on existing titles. Larger publishers strive to maintain innovation with the maintenance of small imprints with their own distinctive proﬁle. Smaller publishers may be more likely to try out new authors and formats. Innovation is encouraged by the system of copyright, which creates value in intellectual property and provides a mechanism to protect that value. Goodwill is the term for those elements which contribute to the competitive advantage, including its brand and employees. It is given a monetary value if the company is taken over. The goodwill then appears on the balance sheet of the acquiring company. The licenses and brand of publishers will be protected by intellectual property rights.